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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Remdesivir COVID-19 studies. Recently added:
Remdesivir has been officially adopted for early treatment in all or part of 9 countries. Submit updates/corrections.
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Dec 30
Animal Vermillion et al., Science Translational Medicine, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.abl8282 (Peer Reviewed)
animal study
Inhaled remdesivir reduces viral burden in a nonhuman primate model of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   African green monkey study of inhaled versus IV remdesivir, showing similar efficacy with inhalation. Comparable concentrations of the active triphosphate in the lower respiratory tract were found with ~20x lower dose using inhalation, an..
Dec 29
Late Mustafa et al., Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy, doi:10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓32.7%, p=0.21
Pattern of medication utilization in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in three District Headquarters Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 444 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing lower mortality with remdesivir treatment in unadjusted results, not reaching statistical significance.
Dec 22
Early Gottlieb et al., New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2116846 (Peer Reviewed)
death/hosp., ↓87.0%, p=0.008
Early Remdesivir to Prevent Progression to Severe Covid-19 in Outpatients
Details   RCT high-risk outpatients, 279 treated with remdesivir and 283 control patients, median 5 days from symptoms, showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment. NCT04501952.
Dec 13
Late Jamir et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.20394 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓8.0%, p=0.77
Determinants of Outcome Among Critically Ill Police Personnel With COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study From Andhra Pradesh, India
Details   Retrospective 266 COVID-19 ICU patients in India, showing significantly lower mortality with PVP-I oral gargling and topical nasal use, and non-statistically significant higher mortality with ivermectin and lower mortality with remdesivir.
Oct 1
Late Mozaffari et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciab875 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓12.0%, p=0.003
Remdesivir treatment in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a comparative analysis of in-hospital all-cause mortality in a large multi-center observational cohort
Details   Retrospective 28,855 remdesivir patients with PSM matched controls, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Sep 14
Late Ader et al., Lancet Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00485-0 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓6.4%, p=0.77
Remdesivir plus standard of care versus standard of care alone for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (DisCoVeRy): a phase 3, randomised, controlled, open-label trial
Details   RCT 857 hospitalized patients, showing no significant differences with remdesivir treatment. DISCOVERY trial. EudraCT2020-000936-23, NCT04315948.
Aug 19
Late Diaz et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciab698 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓34.7%, p=0.01
Remdesivir and Mortality in Patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 1138 hospitalized patients in the USA, 286 treated with remdesivir, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Aug 16
Late Eldeen et al., Microbes and Infectious Diseases, doi:10.21608/mid.2021.85877.1177 (Peer Reviewed) Comparative study between the therapeutic effect of remdesivir versus hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 hospitalized patients
Details   Small study comparing 25 HCQ and 25 remdesivir hospitalized patients, reporting faster viral clearance with remdesivir. The article proof is missing the results for the HCQ group. Confounding by time is likely - remdesivir patients were a..
Aug 13
Late Hosseini et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.08.13.21261992 (Preprint) Another step toward final call on Remdesivir efficacy as a treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a multicenter open-label trial
Details   Single arm remdesivir trial with 145 hospitalized patients showing no statistically significant difference between "early" and "late" administration, however the treatment delays may be better described as late and ver..
Aug 9
Late Kuno et al., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkab256 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓0.9%, p=0.96
The association of remdesivir and in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19 patients treated with steroids
Details   PSM retrospective 3,372 hospitalized patients in the USA treated with steroids, showing no significant difference in mortality with remdesivir, but a lower risk of acute kidney injury.
Aug 5
Meta Anseems et al., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD014962 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID‐19
Details   Review of 5 RCTs prior to April 17, 2021 showing mortality RR 0.93 [0.81-1.06] for hospitalized patients.
Jul 19
Late Madan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.07.15.21260600 (Preprint)
death, ↓44.4%, p=0.03
Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19 disease: A retrospective comparative study of patients treated with and without Remdesivir
Details   Retrospective 1,262 hospitalized patients, 398 treated with remdesivir, showing unadjusted lower mortality with treatment, and a treatment delay-response relationship.
Jul 15
Late Ohl et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.14741 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑6.0%, p=0.66
Association of Remdesivir Treatment With Survival and Length of Hospital Stay Among US Veterans Hospitalized With COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 5,898 hospitalized patients in the USA, 2,374 receiving remdesivir treatment, showing no significant difference in mortality, and a longer time to hospital discharge with treatment.
Jul 13
Late Barrat-Due et al., Annals of Internal Medicine, doi:10.7326/M21-0653 (Peer Reviewed)
death, 0.0%, p=1.00
Evaluation of the Effects of Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine on Viral Clearance in COVID-19
Details   Small RCT in Norway with 52 HCQ and 42 remdesivir patients, showing no significant differences with treatment. Add-on trial to WHO Solidarity. NCT04321616.
Jun 21
Late Arch et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.18.21259072 (Preprint)
death, ↓19.9%, p=0.03
Evaluation of the effectiveness of remdesivir in treating severe COVID-19 using data from the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: a prospective, national cohort study
Details   Prospective PSM analysis of remdesivir use in the UK showing statistically significantly lower mortality at 28 days. For unspecified reasons, the study prioritized short-term outcomes. Mortality at 14 days was also lower but not statistic..
May 4
Meta Liao et al., Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, doi:10.1016/j.jfma.2021.04.026 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Assessing Efficacy of Antiviral Therapy for COVID-19 Patients: A Case Study on Remdesivir with Bayesian Synthesis Design and Multistate Analysis
Details   Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis of remdesivir results showing 31% [18-44%] lower risk of death and 10% [1-18%] higher recovery.
Apr 29
Late Aghajani et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27053 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓18.6%, p=0.49
Decreased In-Hospital Mortality Associated with Aspirin Administration in Hospitalized Patients Due to Severe COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 991 hospitalized patients in Iran focusing on aspirin use but also showing results for HCQ, remdesivir, and favipiravir.
Apr 7
Late Mulhem et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042042 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑85.7%, p=0.54
3219 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in Southeast Michigan: a retrospective case cohort study
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 3,219 hospitalized patients in the USA. Very different results in the time period analysis (Table S2), and results significantly different to other studies for the same medications (e.g., heparin OR 3.06..
Mar 20
Late Mahajan et al., Indian Journal of Anasthesia, doi:10.4103/ija.IJA_149_21 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑76.5%, p=0.47
Clinical outcomes of using remdesivir in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: A prospective randomised study
Details   Small RCT with 34 remdesivir patients and 36 controls finding no significant difference in clinical outcomes.
Mar 10
Late Tsuzuki et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.09.21253183 (Preprint)
death, ↓8.8%, p=1.00
Efficacy of remdesivir in Japanese patients hospitalised with COVID-19: A large observational study using the COVID-19 Registry Japan
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 1907 hospitalized patients in Japan, using PSM to compare 74 remdesivir patients and 195 control patients, not showing significant differences in mortality and ventilation/ECMO, and showing signifcantly ..
Mar 9
Late Goldberg et al., Clinical Microbiology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2021.02.029 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp. time, ↓9.2%, p=0.77
A real-life setting evaluation of the effect of remdesivir on viral load in COVID-19 patients admitted to a large tertiary center in Israel
Details   Retrospective 29 remdesivir patients and 113 controls, not finding a significant difference in nasopharyngeal viral load or hospitalization time. Hospitalization time was lower with treatment, with a larger reduction for non-intubated pat..
Mar 8
Late Fateh et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.05.21251351 (Preprint) A single-center retrospective cohort study of Covid-19 medications: Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Methylprednisolone, Dexamethasone, and Interferon β1a and their combinations
Details   Retrospective 324 hospitalized patients in Iran reporting on the use Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Methylprednisolone, Dexamethasone, and Interferon β1a and their combinations. There is no control group in this study, however authors suggest t..
Feb 27
Safety Touafchia et al., Clinical Microbiology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2021.02.013 (Peer Reviewed)
safety analysis
Serious bradycardia and remdesivir for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19): a new safety concerns
Details   Comparison of bradycardia in COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir compared to those treated with HCQ, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab or glucocorticoids, finding increased risk of bradycardia with remdesivir.
Dec 28
N/A Shen et al., Fundamentals of Clinical Pharmacology, doi:10.1111/fcp.12643 (Peer Reviewed)
safety analysis
Remdesivir potently inhibits carboxylesterase‐2 through covalent modifications: signifying strong drug‐drug interactions
Details   Analysis finding that remdesivir at nanomolar concentrations inhibits carboxylesterase‐2 (CES2) through covalent modifications. CES2 is a major drug‐metabolizing enzyme. Authors conclude that caution must be exercised when remdesivir is u..
Dec 24
In Vitro Jeffreys et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.12.23.424232 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Remdesivir-Ivermectin combination displays synergistic interaction with improved in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2
Details   In Vitro study showing enhanced antiviral activity of ivermectin and remdesivir in combination.
Nov 29
Late Ullah et al., International Journal of Sciences, doi:10.18483/ijSci.2417 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑100%, p=0.33
Efficacy of Remdesivir in Covid-19 Patients; Multicenter Study in Lahore
Details   Small late stage (hospitalized, <12 days symptoms) remdesivir study showing non-statistically significant higher mortality with treatment. No adjustments were made for differences in the groups. Remdesivir mean age was 49 vs. control 57...
Nov 20
Late Garibaldi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.20234153 (Preprint)
death, ↓20.0%, p=0.44
Effectiveness of remdesivir with and without dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 303 remdesivir patients and 303 matched controls showing significantly faster clinical improvement, and lower (but not statistically significant) mortality.
Nov 3
Late Flisiak et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.30.20215301 (Preprint)
death, ↓48.9%, p=0.18
Remdesivir-based therapy improved recovery of patients with COVID-19 in the SARSTer multicentre, real-world study
Details   Retrospective study comparing 122 remdesivir patients and 211 lopinavir/ritonavir patients, showing higher rates of clinical improvement with remdesivir and lower mortality (not statistically significant).
Oct 20
Late Solh et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.16.20214130 (Preprint)
death, ↓47.0%, p<0.001
Clinical course and outcome of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome: data from a national repository
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 7,816 Veterans Affairs hospitalized patients showing 47% reduction in progression from ARDS to mortality.
Oct 15
Late SOLIDARITY Trial Consortium, NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2023184 (preprint 10/15) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓5.0%, p=0.53
Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19; interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results
Details   WHO SOLIDARITY open-label RCT with 2,750 very late stage (76% on oxygen/ventilation) Remdesivir patients, mortality relative risk RR 0.95 [0.81-1.11], p=0.50. Non-ventilated patients show a greater benefit, RR 0.86 [0.72-1.04], p = 0.13.
Oct 8
Late Beigel et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007764 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓27.0%, p=0.07
Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report
Details   RCT 1,062 hospitalized patients showing faster recovery time with treatment, median 10 days vs. 15 days for placebo, rate ratio for recovery 1.29, p<0.001. Day 29 mortality was 11.4% with remdesivir and 15.2% with placebo, hazard ratio H..
Aug 28
Late Fried et al., Clinical Infectious Disease, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1268 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓61.2%, p=0.02
Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of 11,721 Patients with COVID19 Hospitalized Across the United States
Details   Database analysis of 11,721 hospitalized patients, 48 treated with remdesivir. Data inconsistencies have been found in this study, for example 99.4% of patients treated with HCQ were treated in urban hospitals, compared to 65% of untreat..
Aug 23
Late Pasquini et al., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa321 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓16.2%, p=0.03
Effectiveness of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation in an Italian ICU
Details   Retrospective 51 ICU patients under mechanical ventilation, 25 treated with remdesivir, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Aug 21
Late Spinner et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16349 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓34.9%, p=0.50
Effect of Remdesivir vs Standard Care on Clinical Status at 11 Days in Patients With Moderate COVID-19A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Late stage (median 8 days from symptom onset) RCT 584 patients with moderate COVID-19 showing (non-statistically significant) lower mortality. 5-day remdesivir had significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution on the..
Jul 24
Late Olender et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1041 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓58.8%, p=0.001
Remdesivir for Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Versus a Cohort Receiving Standard of Care
Details   Comparative analysis between remdesivir trial GS-US-540–5773 and a retrospective SOC cohort with similar inclusion criteria, showing lower mortality and higher recovery at day 14 with remdesivir.
Jun 30
Late Dubert et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.093 (Peer Reviewed) Case report study of the first five COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir in France
Details   Early report on 5 ICU patients treated with remdesivir highlighting issues with usage in critically ill patients.
Jun 29
Late Zhu et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.22.20136531 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
death, ↓36.0%, p=0.02
Efficacy and Safety of Remdesivir for COVID-19 Treatment: An Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials
Details   Meta analysis of Beigel and Wang RCTs showing remdesivir significantly decreased mortality (8.18% vs. 12.70%, RR 0.64 [0.44-0.92], p = 0.175).
May 27
Late Goldman et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2015301 (Peer Reviewed) Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19
Details   RCT of remdesivir for 5 or 10 days with no placebo control group, showing no significant differences between 5 and 10 day treatment. NCT04292899
Apr 29
Late Wang et al., Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑8.6%, p=1.00
Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial
Details   Small RCT with 237 hospitalized patients in China with severe COVID-19, not showing statistically significant benefits. 158 treatment patients and 79 control patients. While too small for significance, the subgroup treated within 10 days..
Apr 10
Late Grein et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007016 (Peer Reviewed) Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19
Details   Report on compassionate use of remdesivir with 61 severe COVID-19 patients, showing clinical improvement in 36 of 53 patients.
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