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00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Wang (RCT)1.09[0.54-2.18]death236RRCINOlender0.41[0.24-0.71]death1,130Spinner (RCT)0.65[0.18-2.40]death584Pasquini0.84[0.69-0.94]death51Fried0.39[0.15-0.99]death11,721Beigel (RCT)0.73[0.52-1.03]death1,062SOLIDARITY (RCT)0.95[0.81-1.11]death5,451Solh0.53[0.39-0.70]death643Flisiak0.51[0.19-1.30]death333Garibaldi0.80[0.46-1.41]death606Ullah2.00[0.67-5.94]death60Tau​2 = 0.09; I​2 = 69.5%Late treatment0.71[0.56-0.91]21,877 29% improvementAll studies0.71[0.56-0.91]21,877 29% improvement11 remdesivir COVID-19 studiesTau​2 = 0.09; I​2 = 69.5%; Z = 2.72 (p = 0.0032)Lower RiskIncreased Risk
2/27
Safety Touafchia et al., Clinical Microbiology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2021.02.013 (Peer Reviewed) safety analysis Serious bradycardia and remdesivir for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19): a new safety concerns
Comparison of bradycardia in COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir compared to those treated with HCQ, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab or glucocorticoids, finding increased risk of bradycardia with remdesivir.
12/28
N/A Shen et al., Fundamentals of Clinical Pharmacology, doi:10.1111/fcp.12643 (Peer Reviewed) safety analysis Remdesivir potently inhibits carboxylesterase‐2 through covalent modifications: signifying strong drug‐drug interactions
Analysis finding that remdesivir at nanomolar concentrations inhibits carboxylesterase‐2 (CES2) through covalent modifications. CES2 is a major drug‐metabolizing enzyme. Authors conclude that caution must be exercised when remdesivir is u..
12/24
In Vitro Jeffreys et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.12.23.424232 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro Remdesivir-Ivermectin combination displays synergistic interaction with improved in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2
In Vitro study showing enhanced antiviral activity of ivermectin and remdesivir in combination.
11/29
Late Ullah et al., International Journal of Sciences, doi:10.18483/ijSci.2417 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑100%, p=0.33 Efficacy of Remdesivir in Covid-19 Patients; Multicenter Study in Lahore
Small late stage (hospitalized, <12 days symptoms) remdesivir study showing non-statistically significant higher mortality with treatment. No adjustments were made for differences in the groups. Remdesivir mean age was 49 vs. control 57...
11/20
Late Garibaldi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.20234153 (Preprint) death, ↓20.0%, p=0.44 Effectiveness of remdesivir with and without dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
Retrospective 303 remdesivir patients and 303 matched controls showing significantly faster clinical improvement, and lower (but not statistically significant) mortality.
11/3
Late Flisiak et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.30.20215301 (Preprint) death, ↓48.9%, p=0.18 Remdesivir-based therapy improved recovery of patients with COVID-19 in the SARSTer multicentre, real-world study
Retrospective study comparing 122 remdesivir patients and 211 lopinavir/ritonavir patients, showing higher rates of clinical improvement with remdesivir and lower mortality (not statistically significant).
10/20
Late Solh et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.16.20214130 (Preprint) death, ↓47.0%, p<0.001 Clinical course and outcome of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome: data from a national repository
Retrospective database analysis of 7,816 Veterans Affairs hospitalized patients showing 47% reduction in progression from ARDS to mortality.
10/15
Late SOLIDARITY Trial Consortium, NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2023184 (preprint 10/15) (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓5.0%, p=0.53 Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19; interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results
WHO SOLIDARITY open-label RCT with 2,750 very late stage (76% on oxygen/ventilation) Remdesivir patients, mortality relative risk RR 0.95 [0.81-1.11], p=0.50. Non-ventilated patients show a greater benefit, RR 0.86 [0.72-1.04], p = 0.13.
10/8
Late Beigel et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007764 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓27.0%, p=0.07 Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report
RCT 1,062 hospitalized patients showing faster recovery time with treatment, median 10 days vs. 15 days for placebo, rate ratio for recovery 1.29, p<0.001. Day 29 mortality was 11.4% with remdesivir and 15.2% with placebo, hazard ratio H..
8/28
Late Fried et al., Clinical Infectious Disease, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1268 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓61.2%, p=0.02 Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of 11,721 Patients with COVID19 Hospitalized Across the United States
Database analysis of 11,721 hospitalized patients, 48 treated with remdesivir. Data inconsistencies have been found in this study, for example 99.4% of patients treated with HCQ were treated in urban hospitals, compared to 65% of untreat..
8/23
Late Pasquini et al., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa321 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓16.2%, p<0.0001 Effectiveness of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation in an Italian ICU
Retrospective 51 ICU patients under mechanical ventilation, 25 treated with remdesivir, showing lower mortality with treatment.
8/21
Late Spinner et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16349 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓34.9%, p=0.50 Effect of Remdesivir vs Standard Care on Clinical Status at 11 Days in Patients With Moderate COVID-19A Randomized Clinical Trial
Late stage (median 8 days from symptom onset) RCT 584 patients with moderate COVID-19 showing (non-statistically significant) lower mortality. 5-day remdesivir had significantly higher odds of a better clinical status distribution on the..
7/24
Late Olender et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1041 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓58.8%, p=0.001 Remdesivir for Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Versus a Cohort Receiving Standard of Care
Comparative analysis between remdesivir trial GS-US-540–5773 and a retrospective SOC cohort with similar inclusion criteria, showing lower mortality and higher recovery at day 14 with remdesivir.
6/30
Late Dubert et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.093 (Peer Reviewed) Case report study of the first five COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir in France
Early report on 5 ICU patients treated with remdesivir highlighting issues with usage in critically ill patients.
6/29
Late Zhu et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.22.20136531 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis) death, ↓36.0%, p=0.02 Efficacy and Safety of Remdesivir for COVID-19 Treatment: An Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials
Meta analysis of Beigel and Wang RCTs showing remdesivir significantly decreased mortality (8.18% vs. 12.70%, RR 0.64 [0.44-0.92], p = 0.175).
5/27
Late Goldman et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2015301 (Peer Reviewed) Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19
RCT of remdesivir for 5 or 10 days with no placebo control group, showing no significant differences between 5 and 10 day treatment. NCT04292899
6/29
Late Wang et al., Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑8.6%, p=1.00 Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial
Small RCT with 237 hospitalized patients in China with severe COVID-19, not showing statistically significant benefits. 158 treatment patients and 79 control patients. While too small for significance, the subgroup treated within 10 days..
4/10
Late Grein et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007016 (Peer Reviewed) Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19
Report on compassionate use of remdesivir with 61 severe COVID-19 patients, showing clinical improvement in 36 of 53 patients.
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