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Remdesivir study #12 of 16
11/3 Late treatment study
Flisiak et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.30.20215301 (Preprint)
Remdesivir-based therapy improved recovery of patients with COVID-19 in the SARSTer multicentre, real-world study
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Retrospective study comparing 122 remdesivir patients and 211 lopinavir/ritonavir patients, showing higher rates of clinical improvement with remdesivir and lower mortality (not statistically significant).

Flisiak et al., 11/3/2020, retrospective, Poland, Europe, preprint, 23 authors.
all patients, 48.9% lower, RR 0.51, p = 0.18, treatment 5 of 122 (4.1%), control 17 of 211 (8.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
SpO2<95%, 58.0% lower, RR 0.42, p = 0.13, treatment 4 of 82 (4.9%), control 14 of 119 (11.8%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
no clinical improvement, 56.5% lower, RR 0.44, p = 0.01, treatment 9 of 122 (7.4%), control 36 of 211 (17.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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