Antiandrogens
Aspirin
Bamlaniv../e..
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Cannabidiol
Casirivimab/i..
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Ensovibep
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Iota-carragee..
Ivermectin
Lactoferrin
Melatonin
Metformin
Molnupiravir
N-acetylcys..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Povidone-Iod..
Probiotics
Proxalutamide
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Sotrovimab
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Zinc

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Summary
All studies
Exclusions
Mortality
Ventilation
ICU
Hospitalization
Serious outcomes
Recovery
Viral clearance
RCTs
RCT mortality
Peer-reviewed
All outcomes

Feedback
Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Remdesivir  COVID-19 treatment studies for Remdesivir  C19 studies: Remdesivir  Remdesivir   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Melatonin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Metformin (meta)
Bamlaniv../e.. (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) N-acetylcys.. (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Cannabidiol (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Ensovibep (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Hydroxychlor.. (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Lactoferrin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 remdesivir studies
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 20% 27 98,777 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk With exclusions 14% 22 82,092 Mortality 19% 25 98,073 Ventilation -38% 6 20,218 ICU admission -17% 1 1,998 Hospitalization -36% 3 2,755 Viral clearance 0% 1 142 RCTs 13% 8 8,887 RCT mortality 8% 7 8,325 Peer-reviewed 14% 21 90,101 Early 76% 2 934 Late 19% 26 98,215 Remdesivir for COVID-19 c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Favors remdesivir Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Madan (ES) 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] death 4/112 27/260 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 11.9%, p = 0.0025 Early treatment 76% 0.24 [0.10-0.61] 6/391 42/543 76% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] death 4/48 2,510/11,673 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Solh 47% 0.53 [0.39-0.70] death 63/219 202/424 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] death 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] death 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] death 8/30 4/30 Goldberg 9% 0.91 [0.50-1.67] hosp. time 29 (n) 113 (n) Tsuzuki (PSM) 9% 0.91 [0.45-1.85] death 9/74 26/195 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Mulhem -86% 1.86 [0.21-5.24] death 1/8 515/3,211 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] death 46 (n) 945 (n) Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] death 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] death 143/1,172 124/1,172 Madan 44% 0.56 [0.33-0.95] death 23/398 27/260 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] death 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] death 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] death 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Jamir 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] death 60/181 41/85 Mustafa 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.20] death 16/200 29/244 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 53.6%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 19% 0.81 [0.74-0.89] 5,654/39,109 10,692/59,106 19% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.73-0.89] 5,660/39,500 10,734/59,649 20% improvement 28 remdesivir COVID-19 studies c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 56.9%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0064 Early treatment 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] 2/279 15/283 87% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] death 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] death 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] death 8/30 4/30 Goldberg 9% 0.91 [0.50-1.67] hosp. time 29 (n) 113 (n) Tsuzuki (PSM) 9% 0.91 [0.45-1.85] death 9/74 26/195 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] death 46 (n) 945 (n) Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] death 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] death 143/1,172 124/1,172 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] death 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] death 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] death 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Jamir 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] death 60/181 41/85 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 30.8%, p = 0.00034 Late treatment 13% 0.87 [0.81-0.94] 5,547/38,236 7,409/43,294 13% improvement All studies 14% 0.86 [0.79-0.94] 5,549/38,515 7,424/43,577 14% improvement 22 remdesivir COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 40.7%, p = 0.00056 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Madan (ES) 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] 4/112 27/260 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.041 Early treatment 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] 4/112 27/260 66% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] 5/384 4/200 Pasquini 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] 14/25 24/26 Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] 4/48 2,510/11,673 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] 301/2,743 303/2,708 Solh 47% 0.53 [0.39-0.70] 63/219 202/424 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] 8/30 4/30 Tsuzuki (PSM) 9% 0.91 [0.45-1.85] 9/74 26/195 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] 5/34 3/36 Mulhem -86% 1.86 [0.21-5.24] 1/8 515/3,211 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] 46 (n) 945 (n) Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] 143/1,172 124/1,172 Madan 44% 0.56 [0.33-0.95] 23/398 27/260 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Jamir 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] 60/181 41/85 Mustafa 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.20] 16/200 29/244 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 55.5%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 19% 0.81 [0.74-0.89] 5,654/39,080 10,692/58,993 19% improvement All studies 19% 0.81 [0.74-0.89] 5,658/39,192 10,719/59,253 19% improvement 26 remdesivir COVID-19 mortality results c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 55.5%, p < 0.0001 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fried -37% 1.37 [0.81-2.30] 11/48 1,956/11,673 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ullah -250% 3.50 [0.79-15.5] 7/30 2/30 Tsuzuki (PSM) -17% 1.17 [0.37-3.69] 4/74 9/195 Mahajan (RCT) -112% 2.12 [0.41-10.8] 4/34 2/36 Arch (PSM) -68% 1.68 [1.19-2.34] 106/1,498 153/4,602 Kuno (PSM) 0% 1.00 [0.80-1.24] 140/999 140/999 Tau​2 = 0.07, I​2 = 58.5%, p = 0.053 Late treatment -38% 1.38 [1.00-1.91] 272/2,683 2,262/17,535 -38% improvement All studies -38% 1.38 [1.00-1.91] 272/2,683 2,262/17,535 -38% improvement 6 remdesivir COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.07, I​2 = 58.5%, p = 0.053 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Kuno (PSM) -17% 1.17 [1.00-1.37] 260/999 222/999 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.047 Late treatment -17% 1.17 [1.00-1.37] 260/999 222/999 -17% improvement All studies -17% 1.17 [1.00-1.37] 260/999 222/999 -17% improvement 1 remdesivir COVID-19 ICU result c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.047 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Goldberg 9% 0.91 [0.50-1.67] hosp. time 29 (n) 113 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tsuzuki (PSM) -27% 1.27 [1.10-1.47] hosp. time 74 (n) 195 (n) Ohl (PSM) -100% 2.00 [1.33-3.02] hosp. time 1,172 (n) 1,172 (n) Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 64.4%, p = 0.085 Late treatment -36% 1.36 [0.96-1.94] 0/1,275 0/1,480 -36% improvement All studies -36% 1.36 [0.96-1.94] 0/1,275 0/1,480 -36% improvement 3 remdesivir COVID-19 hospitalization results c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 64.4%, p = 0.085 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Madan (ES) 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] death 4/112 27/260 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 11.9%, p = 0.0025 Early treatment 76% 0.24 [0.10-0.61] 6/391 42/543 76% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] death 4/48 2,510/11,673 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Solh 47% 0.53 [0.39-0.70] death 63/219 202/424 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] death 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] death 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] death 8/30 4/30 Tsuzuki (PSM) 9% 0.91 [0.45-1.85] death 9/74 26/195 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Mulhem -86% 1.86 [0.21-5.24] death 1/8 515/3,211 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] death 46 (n) 945 (n) Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] death 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] death 143/1,172 124/1,172 Madan 44% 0.56 [0.33-0.95] death 23/398 27/260 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] death 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] death 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] death 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Jamir 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] death 60/181 41/85 Mustafa 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.20] death 16/200 29/244 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 55.5%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 19% 0.81 [0.74-0.89] 5,654/39,080 10,692/58,993 19% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.72-0.88] 5,660/39,471 10,734/59,536 20% improvement 27 remdesivir COVID-19 serious outcomes c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 58.6%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gottlieb (DB RCT) 29% 0.71 [0.37-1.37] no recov. 43/66 45/60 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0033 Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.37-1.37] 43/66 45/60 29% improvement All studies 29% 0.71 [0.56-0.89] 43/66 45/60 29% improvement 1 remdesivir COVID-19 recovery result c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0033 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Goldberg 0% 1.00 [0.92-1.09] viral+ 29 (n) 113 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.98 Late treatment 0% 1.00 [0.92-1.09] 0/29 0/113 0% improvement All studies 0% 1.00 [0.92-1.09] 0/29 0/113 0% improvement 1 remdesivir COVID-19 viral clearance result c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.98 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0064 Early treatment 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] 2/279 15/283 87% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.21 Late treatment 8% 0.92 [0.81-1.05] 370/4,311 361/4,014 8% improvement All studies 13% 0.87 [0.69-1.09] 372/4,590 376/4,297 13% improvement 8 remdesivir COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 30.9%, p = 0.22 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] 5/384 4/200 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] 301/2,743 303/2,708 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] 5/34 3/36 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] 3/37 4/53 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] 34/414 37/418 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.21 Late treatment 8% 0.92 [0.81-1.05] 370/4,311 361/4,014 8% improvement All studies 8% 0.92 [0.81-1.05] 370/4,311 361/4,014 8% improvement 7 remdesivir COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.21 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0064 Early treatment 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] 2/279 15/283 87% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] death 4/48 2,510/11,673 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] death 8/30 4/30 Goldberg 9% 0.91 [0.50-1.67] hosp. time 29 (n) 113 (n) Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Mulhem -86% 1.86 [0.21-5.24] death 1/8 515/3,211 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] death 46 (n) 945 (n) Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] death 143/1,172 124/1,172 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] death 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] death 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] death 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Jamir 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] death 60/181 41/85 Mustafa 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.20] death 16/200 29/244 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 37.1%, p = 0.0034 Late treatment 13% 0.87 [0.79-0.95] 5,328/36,502 9,598/53,037 13% improvement All studies 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.95] 5,330/36,781 9,613/53,320 14% improvement 21 remdesivir COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19rmd.com Jan 26, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 45.6%, p = 0.003 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Madan (ES) 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] death 4/112 27/260 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Gottlieb (DB RCT) 29% 0.71 [0.37-1.37] no recov. 43/66 45/60 Gottlieb (DB RCT) 48% 0.52 [0.34-0.79] no recov. 108/169 132/165 Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Wang (RCT) 24% 0.76 [0.29-1.95] death 8/71 7/47 Wang (RCT) -48% 1.48 [0.45-4.88] death 12/84 3/31 Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] death