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Remdesivir study #14 of 16
11/29 Late treatment study
Ullah et al., International Journal of Sciences, doi:10.18483/ijSci.2417 (Peer Reviewed)
Efficacy of Remdesivir in Covid-19 Patients; Multicenter Study in Lahore
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Small late stage (hospitalized, <12 days symptoms) remdesivir study showing non-statistically significant higher mortality with treatment.
No adjustments were made for differences in the groups. Remdesivir mean age was 49 vs. control 57. Baseline oxygen requirement was 13.4 liters treatment vs. 10.8 control. Potential confounding by indication.

Ullah et al., 11/29/2020, retrospective, Pakistan, South Asia, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
risk of death, 100% higher, RR 2.00, p = 0.33, treatment 8 of 30 (26.7%), control 4 of 30 (13.3%).
risk of ventilation, 250.0% higher, RR 3.50, p = 0.15, treatment 7 of 30 (23.3%), control 2 of 30 (6.7%).

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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